Веские причины уложить детей спать пораньше

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В следующий раз, когда ваше материнское сердце будет сжиматься от жалости, и вы будете сомневаться, загонять ребенка в кровать или нет — подумайте о его будущем. И о своем тоже.

Новое исследование показывает, что ранний отход ко сну делает детей более здоровыми и укрепляет психику их мам. В совершенно серьезном, научном значении этого выражения.

В рамках государственного проекта «Растем в Австралии» ученые Мельбурнского института Мердока провели исследование 10 700 детей в возрасте 4 и 7 лет и их родителей. Через несколько лет исследование было продолжено, когда детям исполнилось соответственно по 7 и по 10 лет.

Вот что выяснилось. Дети, которые ложились спать рано, продемонстрировали гораздо более крепкое здоровье, чем их ровесники, не имевшие такой привычки. Кроме того, мамы этих здоровых детей также были менее подвержены стрессам и неврозам.

Дети, которых укладывали поздно, помимо худшего физического здоровья, через несколько лет жизни в таком режиме, продемонстрировали и некоторое ухудшение поведения. Нет, оно не стало ужасным или преступным, но у них наблюдалось заметное отклонение в сторону непослушания и отсутствия дисциплины.

Джон Куач, ведущий исследователь проекта, резюмировал это так: «Ранний отход ко сну полезен в долгосрочной перспективе не только для самих детей, но и для родителей тоже».

Насколько рано необходимо укладывать детей спать? Австралийские ученые определили оптимальное время отхода ко сну в 20:30. Речь идет о детях дошкольного возраста. Так или иначе, в Австралии это наиболее распространенная традиция в отношении маленьких детей, и, возможно, отклонение на полчаса не оказало бы заметного влияния. Ученым пришлось следовать за традицией и наблюдать то, что они могли наблюдать, поскольку специальных распоряжений на этот счет они родителям в начале эксперимента не выдавали.

В ходе исследования обнаружилось, что решающую роль играет не продолжительность сна, а именно ранний отбой. (Отметим, что общие медицинские рекомендации относительно детского сна таковы: 9-11 часов для младших школьников и 10-13 часов для детей дошкольного возраста).

Почему ранний отбой оказывает такое воздействие? Причина в том, что у маленьких детей пиковые показатели мелатонина, гормона сна, приходятся на 8 вечера. Засыпание именно в это время или чуть позже позволяет детям хорошо высыпаться и расти здоровыми.

А какая связь с душевным здоровьем родителей? Комплексная. Во-первых, вы получаете личное время для себя, а это ежедневно необходимо каждому человеку. Во-вторых, выспавшиеся и приветливые дети потом в течение целого дня доставляют вам меньше хлопот, чем если бы они капризничали по неизвестным им самим причинам.

И как их укладывать? Ученые рекомендуют завершать все шумные игры за час до сна, и выключать все электронные раздражители — телевизоры, компьютеры и т.п. Яркие экраны стимулируют мозг и блокируют выработку мелатонина. А вот прослушивание, будь то живое чтение на ночь или аудио-сказка или музыка, наоборот, способствует засыпанию. Когда человек слушает, у него замедляется пульс и понижается кровяное давление. Что, разумеется, юному кролиководу только на руку.

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